Prof Peter Kind

The Kind laboratory examines the cellular dysfunction associated with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and related monogenic forms of Intellectual Disabilities (ID) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

Professor Peter Kind

Professor of Developmental Neuroscience

Hugh Robson Building

15 George Square

Edinburgh EH8 9XD

Contact details

 Work: +44 (0)131 651 1762

 Fax: +44 (0)131 651 1706


 Web: KInd Lab

Personal profile

Professor Kind is Director of the Patrick Wild Centre for Research into Autism, Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and Intellectual Disability and Professor of Developmental Neuroscience at the University of Edinburgh. He is also Director of the Simons Initiative for the Developing Brain and Associate Director at the Centre for Brain Development and Repair (CBDR) at the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine (Instem), Bangalore, India. Professor Kind completed his postdoctoral training with Professor Colin Blakemore at Oxford University and Professor Susan Hockfield at Yale University. Professor Kind received his PhD from Oxford University in 1993.


The laboratory focuses on synaptic function, from the physiological and morphological alterations to the behavioural phenotypes associated with rodent models of the Autisms and Intellectual Disabilities. We also test the hypothesis that distinct genetic causes of ASDs/IDs convergence on common biochemical and cellular pathologies associated that may be amenable to similar therapeutic approaches.

Our mission is to understand the neurological basis of and to test new therapies for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), fragile X syndrome (FXS) and intellectual disabilities (ID)— from cell to synapse, from circuit to behaviour. To achieve this, we use an integrated research programme that uses three linked model systems: mouse, rat and human.

The Goals of the Centre are:

  • To use understanding of the genetic basis of ASD/ID as a starting point for modeling the cellular changes that underlie these complex disorders.
  • To develop and test medicines and often treatments for these disorders.
  • To engage those affected by these conditions as well as their families and those who support them, to better understand their difficulties.


Lab members

Former lab members

  • Alina Altonen
  • Natasha Anstey 
  • Daisy Arkell
  • Antonios Asiminas 
  • Maria Banqueri Lopez
  • Stephanie Barnes
  • Mark Barnett
  • Graeme Barry
  • Shinjini Basu
  • Karen Biggar
  • Sam Booker
  • Ingrid Bulller
  • Laura Butterworth
  • Chih-Yuan Chiang
  • Alex Crocker-Buque
  • Elizabeth Davenport
  • Ruth Deighton
  • Kosala Dissanayake
  • Aleks Domanski
  • Dan Giffney
  • Olivia Hamilton
  • Mark Hillen
  • Felicity Inkpen
  • Adam Jackson
  • Owain James
  • Danai Katsanevaki
  • Alla Katsnelson
  • Pradeep Krishnamurthy
  • Aoife McMahon
  • Estelle Meaux 
  • Lindsay Mizen
  • Tim O’Leary
  • Anne Petrie
  • Brittany Prokop
  • Nimra Rasheed 
  • Beverly Roberts
  • Kapil Saxena
  • Laura Simoes De Oliveira
  • Joanna Smith
  • Alison Thomson
  • Lisa Thow 
  • Anna Toft
  • Tania Vitalis



  • Kind PC, Bird AP (2021). CDKL5 deficiency: a disorder of neuromaintenance. JCI in press.
  • Zoupi L, Booker SA, Eigel D, Werner C, Kind PC, Spires-Jones TL, Newland B, Williams AC. (2021) Selective vulnerability of inhibitory networks in multiple sclerosis. Acta Neuropathol. 141, 415. PMID 33449171
  • Booker SA, Kind PC. (2021) Mechanisms regulating input-output function and plasticity of neurons in the absence of FMRP. Brain Res Bull. 175, 69. PMID 34245842
  • Booker SA, Sumera A, Kind PC, Wyllie DJA. (2021) Contribution of NMDA Receptors to Synaptic Function in Rat Hippocampal Interneurons. eNeuro. 11, 4. PMID 34326063
  • Hristova K, Martinez-Gonzalez C, Watson TC, Codadu NK, Hashemi K, Kind PC, Nolan MF, Gonzalez-Sulser A. (2021) Medial septal GABAergic neurons reduce seizure duration upon optogenetic closed-loop stimulation. Brain. 144, 1576. PMID 33769452
  • Das Sharma S, Pal R, Reddy BK, Selvaraj BT, Raj N, Samaga KK, Srinivasan DJ, Ornelas L, Sareen D, Livesey MR, Bassell GJ, Svendsen CN, Kind PC, Chandran S, Chattarji S, Wyllie DJA.(2020) Cortical neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells lacking FMRP display altered spontaneous firing patterns. Mol Autism. doi: 10.1186/s13229-020-00351-4. Mol Autism 11,52. PMID: 32560741
  • Booker SA, Simões de Oliveira L, Anstey NJ, Kozic Z, Dando OR, Jackson AD, Baxter PS, Isom LL, Sherman DL, Hardingham GE, Brophy PJ, Wyllie DJA, Kind PC. (2020) Input-Output Relationship of CA1 Pyramidal Neurons Reveals Intact Homeostatic Mechanisms in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome. Cell Rep. 32,. PMID 3278397
  • Mastro TL, Preza A, Basu S, Chattarji S, Till SM, Kind PC, Kennedy MB A sex difference in the response of the rodent postsynaptic density to synGAP haploinsufficiency.(2020) Elife 15,9. PMID 31939740
  • Benke TA, Kind PC. (2020) Proof-of-concept for a gene replacement approach to CDKL5 deficiency disorder. Brain 143, 716. PMID 33203572
  • Wong H, Hooper AWM, Niibori Y, Lee SJ, Hategan LA, Zhang L, Karumuthil-Melethil S, Till SM, Kind PC, Danos O, Bruder JT, Hampson DR. (2020) Sexually dimorphic patterns in electroencephalography power spectrum and autism-related behaviors in a rat model of fragile X syndrome. Neurobiol Dis 146, 105,118. PMID 33031903
  • Kozic Z, Booker SA, Dando OR, Hardingham G, Kind PC. (2020)  LAB-AID (Laboratory Automated Interrogation of Data): an interactive web application for visualization of multi-level data from biological experiments. bioRxiv 763318; doi:
  • Anstey NJ, Kapgal V, Tiwari S, Watson TC, Toft AKH, Dando OR, Inkpen FH, Baxter PS, Kozić Z, Jackson AD, He X, Nawaz MS, Kayenaat A, Bhattacharya A, Wyllie DJA, Chattarji S, Wood ER, Hardt O, Kind PC. (2020). Imbalance of flight-freeze responses and their cellular correlates in the Nlgn3-/y rat model of autism. bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2020.08.27.267880
  • Katsanevaki D, Till SM, Buller-Peralta I, Watson TC, Nawaz MS, Arkell D, S. Tiwari, V. Kapgal, Biswal S, Smith  JAB, Anstey NJ, Mizen L, Perentos N, Jones MW, Cousin MA, Chattarji S, A. Gonzalez-Sulser A, O. Hardt O, ER. Wood ER, PC. Kind PC. (2020). Heterozygous deletion of SYNGAP enzymatic domains in rats causes selective learning, social and seizure phenotypes. bioRxiv doi: 10.1101/2020.10.14.339192
  • Booker SA, Domanski APF, Dando O, Jackson AD, Isaac JTR, Hardingham GE, Wyllie DJA, Kind PC. (2019) Altered dendritic spine function and integration in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. Nat Comms, 10(1):4813
  • Domanski APF, Booker SA, Wyllie DJA, Isaac JTR, Kind PC. (2019) Cellular and synaptic phenotypes lead to disrupted information processing in Fmr1-KO mouse layer 4 barrel cortex. Nat Comms, 10(1):4814
  • Brown SSG, Whalley HC, Kind PC, Stanfield AC (2019). Decreased functional brain response to emotional arousal and increased psychiatric symptomology in FMR1 premutation carriers. Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging. 30;285:9-17
  • Strehlow V, Heyne HO, Vlaskamp DRM, Marwick KFM, Rudolf G, de Bellescize J, Biskup S, Brilstra EH, Brouwer OF, Callenbach PMC, Hentschel J, Hirsch E, Kind PC, Mignot C, Platzer K, Rump P, Skehel PA, Wyllie DJA, Hardingham GE, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Lesca G, Lemke JR. (2019) GRIN2A study group . GRIN2A-related disorders: genotype and functional consequence predict phenotype. Brain. 1;142:80-92.
  • Asiminas A, Jackson AD, Louros SR, Till SM, Spano T, Dando O, Bear MF, Chattarji S, Hardingham GE, Osterweil EK, Wyllie DJA, Wood ER, Kind PC. (2018) Sustained correction of associative learning deficits following brief, early treatment in a rat model of Fragile X Syndrome. Science Translational Medicine 11:494
  • McKay S, Ryan TJ, McQueen J, Indersmitten T, Marwick KFM, Hasel P, Kopanitsa MV, Baxter PS, Martel MA, Kind PC, Wyllie DJA, O'Dell TJ, Grant SGN, Hardingham GE, Komiyama NH (2018). The Developmental Shift of NMDA Receptor Composition Proceeds Independently of GluN2 Subunit Specific GluN2 C-Terminal Sequences. Cell Rep. 23;25:841-851
  • Saxena K, Webster J, Hallas-Potta A, Mackenzie R, Spooner PA, Thomson D, Kind PC, Chattarji S, Morris RGM. (2018) Experimental contributions to social dominance in a rat model of Fragile X Syndrome. Biological Sciences 285:20181334
  • Schmidt T, Solimani F, Pollmann R, Stein R, Schmidt A, Stulberg I, Kühn K, Eming R, Eubel V, Kind PC, Arweiler N, Sitaru C, Hertl M. (2018) TH1/TH17 cell recognition of desmoglein 3 and bullous pemphigoid antigen 180 in patients with lichen planus. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 142(2):669-672
  • Selvaraj BT, Livesey MR, Zhao C, Gregory JM, James OT, Cleary EM, Chouhan AK, Gane AB, Perkins EM, Dando O, Lillico SG, Lee YB, Mishimura AL, Poreci U, Thankamony S, Pray M, Vasistha NA, Magani D, Borooah S, Burr K, Story D, McCampbell A, Shaw CE, Kind PC, Aitman TJ, Whitelaw CBA, Wilmut I, Smith C, Miles GB, Hardingham GR, Wyllie DJA, Chandran S. (2018) C9ORF2 repeat expansion causes vulnerability of motor neurons to Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity. Nat Comms. 24;9:347.
  • Booker SA, Loreth D, Gee AL, Watanabe M, Kind PC, Wyllie DJA, Kulik A, Vida I. (2018)  Postsynaptic GABABR’s Inhibit L-Type Calcium channels and abolish long-term potentiation in hippocampal somatostatin interneurons. Cell Reports 2;22:36-43.
  • Brown SSG, Basu S, Whalley HC, Kind PC, Stanfield AC. (2018) Age related functional brain changes in FMR1 premutation carriers. Neuroimage; Clinical 9;17:761-767
  • Thomson S, Seo S, Barnes S, Louros SR, Muscas M, Dando O, Kirby C, Wyllie DJA, Kind PC, Osterweil E. (2017)  Cell type-specific translation profiling reveals a novel strategy for treating fragile X syndrome. 2:95:550-563.
  • Currie SP, Luz LL, Booker SA, Wyllie DJA, Kind PC. (2017) Daw MI. Reduced local input to fast-spiking interneurons in the somatosensory cortex in the GABA y2 R43Q mouse model of absence epilepsy. Eplilepsia 58:597-607.
  • Booker SA, Campbell GR, Mysiak KS, Brophy PJ, Kind PC, Mahad DJ, Wyllie DJ. (2017) Loss of protohaem IX farnesyltransferase in mature dentate granule cells impairs short-term facilitation at mossy fibre to CA3 pyramidal cell synapses. J Physiol. 15; 595:2147-2160.
  • Qiu J, McQueen J, Bilican B, Dando O, Magnani D, Punovuori K, Selvaraj BT, Livesey M, Haghi G, Heron S, Burr K, Patani R, Rajan R, Sheppard O, Kind PC, Simpson I, Tybulewicz VLJ, Wyllie DJA, Fisher EMC, Lowell S, Chandran S, Hardingham GE. (2016) Evidence for evolutionary divergence of activity-dependant gene expression in developing neurons.1;5 e20337
  • Crocker-Buque A, Currie SP, Luz LL, Grant SG, Duffy KR, Kind PC, Daw MI. (2016)  Altered thalamocortical development in the SAP102 knockout model of intellectual disability. Hum Mol Genet.15;25:4052-4016.
  • Hector RD, Dando O, Ritakari TE, Kind PC, Bailey ME, Cobb SR. (2016) Characterisation of the CDKL5 Transcript Isoforms in rat. PloS One 17;11:e0157758.
  • Hector RD, Dando O, Landsberger N, Kilstrup-Nielsen C, Kind PC, Bailey ME, Cobb SR. (2016) Characterisation of the CDKL5 Transcript Isoforms in Human and Mouse. PloS One; 11; e015775
  • Markus NM, Hasel P, Qui J, Bell KF, Heron S, Kind PC, Dando O, Simpson TI, Hardingham GE. (2016) Expression of mRNA Encoding Mcu and Other Mitochondrial Calcium Regulatory Genes Depends on Cell Type, Neuronal Subtype and Ca2+ Signalling. PloS One 11:e0148164.
  • Livesey MR, Magnani D, Cleary EM, Vasistha NA, James OT, Selvaraj BT, Burr K, Story D, Shaw CE, Kind PC, Hardingham GE, Wyllie DJA, Chandran S. (2016) Maturation and electrophysiological properties of human pluripotent stem cell-derived oligodendrocytes. Stem Cells 34:1040-53.
  • Barnes SA, Kind PC, Wyllie DJA. (2016) Convergence of hippocampal pathophysiology in Syngap +/- and Fmr1 -/y mice, J Neurosci. 35; 15073-15081.
  • Till SM, Kind PC. (2015) Conserved hippocampal cellular pathophysiology but distinct behavioural deficits in a new rat model of FXS. Hum Mol Genet 24.5977-8
  • James OT, Kind PC, Wyllie DJA.(2015) Ionotropic GABA and glycine receptor subunit composition in human pluripotent stem cell-derived excitatory cortical neurons. J  Physiol. 592 4353-63.
  • Wijetunge L, Angibaud J, Frick A Kind PC, Nagerl UV. (2015) Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy reveals nanoscale defects in the developmental trajectory of dendritic spine morphogenesis in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. J Neurosci 34:6405-6412.
  • Crocker-Buque A, Brown SM, Kind PC, Isaac JT, Daw MI. (2014) Experience-Dependant layer-specific development of divergent Thalamocortical connectivity. Cereb. Cortex. 25:2255-66.
  • Filis P, Kind PC, Spears N. (2013) Implantation failure in mice with a disruption in Phospholipase C beta 1 gene: lack of embryonic attachment, aberrant steroid hormone signalling and defective endocannabinoid metabolism. Mol Hum Reprod. 19:290-301.
  • Wijetunge L, Chattarji S, Wyllie DJA, Kind PC. (2012)  Fragile X syndrome from targets to treatment. Neuropharmacology  68:83-96.
  • Osterweil EK, Kind PC, Bear MF. (2012) Lifting the mood on treating Fragile X. Biol Psyc 1; 72(11):895-7.
  • Henderson C, Wijetunge L, Kinoshita MN, Shumway M, Postma FR, Brynczka C, Hammond RS, Rush, RS, Thomas A, Paylor R, Warren ST, Vanderklish PW, Kind PC, Carpenter RL, Dear MF, Healy AM. (2012) Reversal of disease-related pathologies in the Fragile X mouse model by selective activation of GABA-B receptors with Arbaclofen. Sci Transl Med. 4; 152ra128.
  • McMahon AC, Barnett MW, O’Leary TS, Stoney PN, Collins MO, Papadia S, Choudhary JS, Komiyama NH, Grant SG, Hardingham GE, Wyllie DJA, Kind PC. (2012) Activity Dependant alternative promoter usage and alternative splicing enable SynGAP isoforms to exert opposing effects on synaptic strength. Nature Comms. 3:900.
  • Martel M-A, Ryan T, Bell KF, Fowler JH, McMahon A, Al-Mubrak B, Komiyama NH, Horsburgh K, Kind PC, Grant SG Wyllie DJA, Hardingham GE. (2012) The subtype of GluN2 C-terminal domain determines the response to excitotoxic insults. Neuron 74:543-556 .
  • Kind PC, Sengpiel F, Beaver CJ, Crocker-Buque A, Kelly GM, Matthews RT, Mitchell DE. (2012) The development and activity-dependant expression of aggrecan in the cat visual cortex. Cereb Cortex 23:349-360.
  • Jaffer S, Vorobyov V, Kind PC, Sengpiel F. (2012) Experience dependant regulation of functional maps in synaptic protein expression in cat visual cortex Eur J Neurosci. 35:1281-94. 
  • Baxter PS, Martel MA, McMahon A, Kind PC, Hardingham GE. (2011) Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide induces long-lasting neuroprotection through the induction of activity-dependant signalling via the Cyclic AMP response element-binding protein-regulated transcription co-activator 1. J. Neurochem 118-365-78.
  • Till SM, Wijetunge L, Seidel VG, Harlow E, Wright A, Bagni C, Contractor A, Gillingwater TH, Kind PC. (2010) Genetic deletion of FMRP alters the trajectory of specific cellular processes during cortical development. Hum Mol Genet. 21:2143-2156.
  • Harlow EG, Till SM, Russell TA, Wijetunge L, Kind PC. (2010) Contractor A. Critical period plasticity is disrupted in the barrel cortex of Fmr1 knockout mice. Neuron 65:385-398.
  • Filis P, Lannagan T, Thomson A, Murray AA, Kind PC, Spears N. (2009) Phospholipase C-beta1 signalling affects reproductive behaviour, ovulation and implantation. Endocrinology 150:3259-66.
  • Thomson RE, Kind PC, Graham NA, Etherson ML, Kennedy J, Fernandes AC, Marques CS, Hevner RF, Iwata T. (2009) Fgf receptor 3 activation promotes selective growth and expansion of occipitotemporal cortex. Neural Dev 4:4
  • Wijetunge L, Till SM, Ingham C, Gillingwater T, Kind PC. (2008) mGluR5 Regulates Glutamate-Dependant Development of the Mouse Somatosensory Cortex J Neurosci. 28.13028-13037.
  • Watson RF, Abdel-Majid RM, Barnett MW, Willis BS, Katsnelson A, Gillingwater TH, McKnight GS Kind PC, Neumann PE. (2006) Involvement of Protein Kinase A in Patterning of the Mouse Somatosensory Cortex. J Neurosci 34:6405-6413.
  • Mitchell DE, Kind PC, Sengpiel F, Murphy K. (2006) Short periods of concordant binocular vision prevent the development of deprivation amblyopia. Eur. J Neurosci 23:2458-2466.
  • Barnett MW, Watson R, Vitalis T, Porter K, Komiyama NH, Stone PN, Gillingwater TH, Grant SG, Kind PC. (2006) SynGAP regulates patterns formation in the trigeminal system of mice J Neurosci 26:1355-1365.
  • Porter K, Komiyama NH, Vitalis T, Kind PC Grant SGN. (2005) Differential expression of two NMDA receptor interacting proteins, PSD-95 and SynGAP during mouse development. Eur. J. Neurosci. 21:351-362.
  • Spires TL, Molnar Z, Kind PC, Cordery PM, Upton AL, Blakemore C, Hannan AJ. (2005) Activity-dependent Regulation of Synapse and Dendritic Spine Morphology in Developing Barrel Cortex Requires Phospholipase C-b1 Signalling. Cereb. Cortex 15:385-393.
  • Mitchell DE, Kind PC, Sengpiel F, Murphy K. (2003) Brief daily periods of binocular vision prevent deprivation-induced acuity loss. Curr. Biol. 13:1704-8
  • Sengpiel, F, Kind PC. (2002) the role of activity in the development of the visual system. Curr. Biol. 12:R818-826.
  • Vitalis T, Cases O, Gillies K, Hanoun N, Hamon M, Seif I, Gaspar P, Kind PC, and Price DJ. (2002) Interactions between TrkB-signalling and serotonin excess in the developing murine somatosensory cortex: a role in tangential and radial organisation of thalamocortical axons. J. Neurosci. 22:4987-5000.
  • Kind PC, Mitchell DE, Ahmed B, Blakemore C, Bonhoeffer T, Sengpiel F. (2002) Correlated binocular activity guides recovery from monocular deprivation. Nature 416:430-433.
  • Mitchell, DE, Gingras G and Kind PC.(2002) Initial Recovery of Vision after Early Monocular Deprivation in Kittens is Faster When Both Eyes Are Open. PNAS, 11662-11667.
  • Hannan AJ, Blakemore C, Katsnelson A, Huber K, Roder JK, Bear M, Kim D, Shin H, Kind PC. (2001)  Phospholipase C-b1, activated via mGluRs, mediates activity-dependent differentiation in cerebral cortex. Nat. Neurosci 4, 282-288.
  • Kind PC, Neumann PE Placticity: downstream of glutamate (2001) Plasticity: downstream of glutamate. Trends Neurosci 11576648
  • Kind PC. (1999) Cortical plasticity: is it time for a change? Curr Biol, 1050857
  • Lander C, Kind PC, Maleski M and Hockfield S. (1997) A family of activity-dependent neuronal cell-surface chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in cat visual cortex. J. Neurosci 17: 1928-1939.
  • Kind PC, Fryer HJ, Kelly GM and Hockfield S. (1997) PLC-ß1 is present in the botrysome, an intermediate compartment-like organelle, and is regulated by visual experience in cat visual cortex. J. Neurosci. 17: 1471-1480.
  • Sengpiel F, Troilo D, Kind PC, Graham B and Blakemore C. (1995) Functional architecture of area 17 in normal and monocularly deprived marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Vis. Neurosci. 13: 145-160.
  • Kind PC and Hockfield S. (1995) Neonatal tolerization and rapid immunization: an immunological subtraction technique for the generation of monoclonal antibodies. J. Neurosci. Protocols, 040: 1-13.
  • Kind PC, Beaver CJ and Mitchell DE. (1995) The effects of monocular deprivation and reverse suture on the expression of Cat-301 in the dLGN of cats. J. Comp. Neurol. 359: 523-536.
  • Sengpiel F, Blakemore C, Kind PC, and Harrad R.(1994) Interocular suppression in the visual cortex of strabismic cats. J. Neurosci. 14: 6855-6871.
  • Kind PC, Blakemore C, Fryer H and Hockfield S. Identification of proteins down-regulated during the postnatal development of the cat visual cortex.  Cereb. Cortex, (1994) 4: 361-375.
  • Crabtree JW and Kind PC. (1993) Monoclonal antibody Cat-301 selectivity identifies a subset of nuclei in the cat’s somatosensory thalamus. J. Neurocyt. 22: 903-912.
  • Kind PC, Beaver CJ and Mitchell DE. (1991) Morphological Changes Induced in the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus of Kittens by Regimens of Part-time Reverse Occlusion that Optimize the Extent of Behavioural Recovery from Early Monocular Deprivation. Clin.Vis. Sci. 6: 241-255.